Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter vol 88 2014

 

RIO CUARTO, ARGENTINA

Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto

 

Quality and nutritional value of corn silage hybrids evaluated by multivariate analysis

ROSSI, EA; BONAMICO, NC; ORTIZ, ME and DI RENZO, MA.

Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Nº 3, 5800 Río Cuarto, Argentina. e-mail: [email protected]

 

INTRODUCTION

Corn silage is a food with high energy and high yield/ha which has good palatability and consistency. Harvesting and storage are quick. Compared with other forage is has lower cost per ton of dry matter (Lauer, 2011).

Corn, for their content of readily fermentable carbohydrates is one of the most suitable crops for silage (Fregona et al., 2007, Huenting et al., 2012). Different corn hybrids differ regarding the variables associated with suitability for silage, so it is important to generate information on the performance of these (Mahanna, 2005).

When evaluating different genotypes for agronomic characteristics, it is interesting to interpret the similarity/dissimilarity between them. To this are effective and widely used multivariate analysis techniques that allow visualizing and interpreting graphs by ordering relations between genotypes (Balzarini et al., 2007; Bonamico et al., 2006; Ortolan et al., 2011).

Cluster analysis, often used as a screening method, could be used in order to meet the population genetic structure of different genotypes of maize hybrids. When multiple variables for each level of one or more factors that define the treatments studied, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to make simultaneous inferences about the effects of factor analysis model (Balzarini et al., 2008; Vega et al., 2011).

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and nutritional value of different corn silage hybrids in the Río Cuarto locality, Córdoba province, Argentina. 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The quality and nutritional value of silage were estimated in 28 corn silage hybrids from different seed companies based on field evaluations conducted at the Río Cuarto locality  (Córdoba province; 33°10`25``S, 64°21`40``W) from the semiarid region of Argentina. A randomized complete block design with three reps was used to test the genotypes during a crop season (2012/2013) (Table 1). Plots consisted of four 6 m rows with 0.8 m between rows. The traits were determined in the two central row, discarding the two border row. The plants were thinned to a distance of 0.15 m. This low planting density allowed the expression of morphological characteristics without substantial plan-to-plant competition. The planting date was the first week of December 2012. Variation of twelve traits were analyzed: fresh weight (FW), dry matter (DM), grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), spike insertion height (SH), leaf number (LN), crude protein (PC), acid detergent fiber (FDA), metabolic energy (ME), digestibility in vitro (DG), anthesis-silking interval (ASI) and days to flowering (DF).

The variables were analyzed with a multivariate approach such as cluster analysis. This method allows grouping the different genotypes using a set of variables. The formation of clusters was performed using average linkage (UPGMA) and the Euclidean distance. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied to establish the order of the hybrids to simultaneously considering all the variables.

 

Table 1. Seed companies, name and cycle of corn hybrids evaluated in Rio Cuarto, Córdoba, during the season 2012/2013.

Seed Companies

Hybrid

Cycle

Seed     Companies

 

Hybrid

 

Cycle

La Tijereta

LT 622VT3P

Temperate

Sem West

SW 194/12     

Tropical

La Tijereta

LT 626VT3P

Temperate

Sem West

SW 276/12     

Tropical

La Tijereta

LT 632MGRR2

Temperate

KWS

4360 ASG

Temperate

Monsanto

DK 747VT3P

Temperate

Nidera

AX 896MG

Temperate

Monsanto

DK 72-10VT3P

Temperate

Syngenta

NK 880TDMAX

Temperate

Monsanto

DK 190MGRR2

Temperate

Pannar

BG 7049H     

Tropical

Monsanto

DK 747MGRR2

Temperate

Pannar

BG W618R

Temperate

Los Algarrobos

ZEA 3265

Temperate

Pannar

BG 6503H

Temperate

Los Algarrobos

APACHE

Temperate

Pannar

BG 6502HR

Temperate

Los Algarrobos

DELTA

Temperate

Criadero Ing. Falco

RIO QUINTO    

Temperate

Sem West

SW 5147

Temperate

Criadero Ing. Falco

EXP HS SIL

Temperate

Sem West

SW 5148

Temperate

Pioneer

30F35HR        

Tropical

Sem West

SW 5150

Temperate

Pioneer

P1845YR

Temperate

Sem West

SW 5130         

Tropical

UNRC

EXP  UNRC

Temperate

 

RESULTS

Graph generated from the cluster analysis is shown in Figure 1. Twelve measures variables were considered in the 28 corn silage hybrids evaluated in the Río Cuarto, Córdoba. This analysis defines three groups consisting of twenty two, five and one genotype, respectively. One group, comprising the by 30F35HR, BG 7049H, SW 276/12, SW 194/12 and SW 5130 genotypes, are characterized by their tropical cycle. Another group consisted of hybrid UNRC EXP.  Genotypes of temperate cycle formed the third group. Cophenetic correlation coefficient was 0,89.

Figure 1. Dendrogram obtained by average linkage algorithm (UPGMA) and the Euclidean distance, with the variables related to quality and nutritional value of silage in 28 corn silage hybrids evaluated in the Río Cuarto, Córdoba, during the season 2012 / 2013.

 

The order of 28 corn hybrids that had statistically significant differences in the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is presented in Table 2. Jointly considering all the variables only RIO QUINTO genotype showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0,05) compared to other hybrids. The average values ​​of this genotype vary with respect to the overall mean depending on the variable analyzed. For dry matter, crude protein and digestibility, this cultivar recorded below average values, while acid detergent fiber and grain yield were higher than the mean values. For the other variables, the values ​​were similar to the average.

Table 2. Average of twelve traits related to quality and nutritional value of silage in 28 corn silage hybrids evaluated in the Rio Cuarto, Córdoba, during the season 2012/2013. These hybrids showed statistically significant differences in the MANOVA

HYBRID

FW

DM

GY

PH

SH

LN

PC

FDA

ME

DG

ASI

DF

 

 

 

 

 

 

RIO QUINTO

54408

14758

7039

2,00

1,00

16

7,23

23,00

2,59

71,77

2,67

67

A

 

 

 

 

 

DELTA

41300

12676

4245

1,87

0,83

14

8,49

19,30

2,68

74,33

4,00

64

B

H

 

 

 

 

EXP  UNRC

51675

13854

3866

2,00

1,03

15

8,05

26,0

2,51

69,70

1,67

62

B

 

 

 

 

 

BG 7049H

67958

15633

6925

2,50

1,40

20

7,19

25,10

2,53

70,30

2,00

81

C

D

 

 

 

 

30F35HR

57217

13198

4086

2,40

1,36

20

7,86

23,40

2,57

71,50

1,33

81

C

 

 

 

 

 

SW 5130

66642

14580

6330

2,28

1,35

19

7,41

25,50

2,52

70,07

1,00

82

C

 

 

 

 

 

SW 194/12

64217

15959

6000

2,47

1,52

19

7,44

23,60

2,57

71,43

1,00

80

D

 

 

 

 

 

SW 276/12

68825

17622

6079

2,50

1,44

20

6,93

24,10

2,56

71,03

2,00

78

D

 

 

 

 

 

LT 626VT3P

56300

18479

9567

2,22

0,91

14

7,41

17,90

2,71

75,37

3,67

64

E

F

I

 

 

 

DK 747VT3P

51342

15275

7401

2,05

0,87

14

7,03

19,30

2,68

74,37

3,00

62

E

H

I

K

 

 

EXP HS SIL

54250

18149

9043

2,00

0,87

14

7,18

17,90

2,72

75,37

2,33

61

E

I

K

 

 

 

AX 896MG

45633

15729

8631

2,07

0,92

13

7,18

18,20

2,71

75,13

2,67

61

E

I

K

 

 

 

DK 747MGRR2

53975

17239

6958

2,25

0,85

14

7,86

21,40

2,62

72,93

3,33

62

E

I

 

 

 

 

DK 72-10VT3P

57642

17651

9248

2,23

0,93

13

6,83

19,70

2,67

74,13

3,33

61

E

 

 

 

 

 

BG W618R

49700

16820

6419

2,10

0,89

14

7,31

20,40

2,65

73,60

3,67

64

F

G

H

I

J

K

BG 6502HR

48242

15756

7354

1,88

0,88

14

6,67

20,00

2,66

73,93

2,33

64

F

G

H

J

K

 

P1845YR

57417

18632

8030

2,20

0,98

14

6,52

22,00

2,61

72,47

1,67

63

F

G

I

J

K

 

BG  6502H

53758

15608

8455

1,93

0,88

14

6,79

22,30

2,6

72,30

3,00

64

F

G

J

K

 

 

LT 622VT3P

57400

17359

8964

2,07

0,93

14

7,17

21,10

2,63

73,10

3,33

65

F

G

K

 

 

 

4360 ASG

57950

15514

6990

2,10

0,95

14

6,77

20,60

2,64

73,47

4,67

66

F

G

 

 

 

 

SW 5148

56167

15657

7094

2,15

0,93

15

7,33

20,90

2,64

73,27

5,33

66

F

G

 

 

 

 

SW 5150

52825

15127

6766

1,87

0,83

14

7,08

21,20

2,63

73,07

3,33

64

G

H

J

 

 

 

LT 632MGRR2

51358

17318

7487

2,17

0,92

15

6,98

19,50

2,67

74,30

2,00

62

H

I

K

 

 

 

ZEA 3265

46477

13849

6081

1,95

0,87

14

7,21

22,10

2,61

72,43

4,00

63

H

J

K

 

 

 

APACHE

45592

13238

5083

1,77

0,79

13

7,68

20,60

2,65

73,47

3,67

64

H

J

K

 

 

 

DK 190MGRR2

56583

17730

7773

2,23

0,90

15

7,97

19,70

2,67

74,13

2,67

61

I

K

 

 

 

 

NK 880TDMAX

54692

16128

7375

1,97

0,79

14

7,14

23,60

2,57

71,40

2,00

62

J

K

 

 

 

 

SW 5147

47158

13925

4092

1,82

0,78

14

7,94

21,60

2,62

72,77

4,00

66

J

 

 

 

 

 

Average

54525

15838

6906

2,11    

0,99   

15

7,31    

21,43   

2,62

72,90

2,85   

66

 

 

 

 

 

 

SE

864,12  

246,05                                     

193,20 

0,02   

0,02   

0,26 

0,09      

0,34     

0,01   

0,23

0,14

0,75  

 

 

 

 

 

 

FW: fresh weight; DM: dry matter; GY: grain yield; PH: plant height; SH: spike insertion height; LN: leaf number; PC: crude protein; FDA: acid detergent fiber; ME: metabolic energy; DG: digestibility in vitro; ASI: anthesis-silking interval; DF: days to flowering. SE: Standar error

Significant differences (p > 0,05) between hybrids were indicated by different letters.

 

 

DISCUSSION

With cluster analysis it was possible to differentiate hybrids according to the length of the cycle. A group was constituted with the genotypes of tropical cycle and the other group with genotypes of temperate cycle. Cophenetic correlation coefficient obtained (0,89) indicated that distances in the dendrogram reflect the true distances between hybrids. These results were consistent with those observed by González Huerta et al. (2011) who evaluated twenty cultivars of maize in Mexico by fourteen agronomic traits. Cluster analysis differentiated a group with twenty short-cycle cultivars and another group with four long-season cultivars.

The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was a useful technique to help identify groups with statistically significant differences considering the twelve variables together in the twenty hybrids. Chiok and Chinte (2004) applied this type of analysis in a comparative experiment with six maize hybrids finding significant differences between genotypes. Further stated that this type of analysis will improve data interpretation. Vega et al. (2011) also applied the MANOVA to assess the variation in morphometric traits and germination from eight sources carob (Prosopis alba Griseb Fabaceae, Mimosoideae).

 

REFERENCES

BALZARINI, M.G., A.T. ARROYO, N.C. BONAMICO and M.A.  DI RENZO. 2007. Association between agronomic and molecular marker variation in genotype evaluation. International symposium agricultural field traits-today and tomorrow, Stuttgart, Hohenheim, Alemania.

BALZARINI, M.G., L. GONZALEZ, M. TABLADA. F. CASANOVES. J.A. DI RIENZO y C.W. ROBLEDO. 2008. Manual del Usuario InfoStat. Editorial Brujas, Córdoba, Argentina. pp. 204-207.

BONAMICO, N.C., M.G. BALZARINI, M.A. DI RENZO and M.A. IBÁÑEZ. 2006. Generalized procrustes analysis for describing relationships between maize hybrids from multi-environment yield trial and molecular data. XXIIIRD International biometric conference, ibc2006. Montréal, Québec, Canada. TP1 221

CHIOK, C.M. y M.F. CHINTE. 2004. Aplicación del análisis multivariado de variancia (MANOVA). Anales Científicos - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú. 157-172.

 En: http://www.lamolina.edu.pe/Investigacion/web/anales/pdf anales/LVIII-2.pdf Consultado: 12-11-2013.

FREGONA, F., C. PRIETO, I DE LOS M. NESCIER y L. ROMERO 2007. Productividad, composición morfológica y parámetros nutritivos de híbridos de maíz para silaje en dos épocas de siembra. Revista FAVE-Ciencias Veterinarias 6: 43-51.

GONZÁLEZ HUERTA, A., D de J. PÉREZ LÓPEZ, O. FRANCO MORA, E. G. NAVABERNAL, F. GUTIÉRREZ RODRÍGUEZ, M, RUBÍ ARRIAGA y A. CASTAÑEDA VILDÓZOLA. 2011.  Análisis multivariado aplicado al estudio de las interrelaciones entre cultivares de maíz y variables agronómicas. Ciencias Agrícolas 20(2): 58-65

HUENTING, K., T. AYMANNS and M.  PRIES. 2012. Fermentation potential of corn silage, XVI International Silage Conference. Hämeenlinna, Finland, p: 356-357.

LAUER, J. 2011. Selecting Corn Silage Hybrids. Agronomy Advice, University of Wisconsin, Madison, EEUU. Field Crops 28:5-89.

MAHANNA, B. 2005. Managing corn silage from seed to feed.  Proceedings of the 7 th Western Dairy Management Conference. March 9-11, 2005  Reno, NV. p: 86-87.

ORTOLÁN, T., V. GIRARDI, N.C. BONAMICO y M.A. DI RENZO. 2011. Ordenamiento de híbridos de maíz mediante descriptores moleculares y morfológicos. II Reunión Conjunta de Sociedades de Biología de la Republica Argentina, BV9, San Juan, Argentina.

VEGA M.V., B. SAIDMAN y J. VILARDI. 2011. Variación de rasgos morfométricos y germinativos entre ocho orígenes de Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) de Chaco y Formosa. Journal of Basic and Apllied Genetics XLI: 187.

 

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